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Item specifics

Condition:
Pre-owned: An item that has been used or worn previously. See the seller’s listing for full details ...
Pattern:
Solid
Occasion:
Activewear
Size:
12
Color:
Blue
Material:
Polyester Blend
Front Type:
Flat Front
Size (Women's):
12
Brand:
Ashworth
Size Type:
Regular
Type:
Skort
Department:
Women
Skirt Length:
Above Knee
Style:
Athletic Skirt Skort
Features:
Pockets
Performance/Activity:
Golf, Golf, Tennis,casual






Ashworth Womens Skort Size 12 Tennis Golf Pockets Teal Blue Poly Spandex GUC

First novels

I traditionally start my phonetics courses with an "over-under bet", about how much randomly-selected audio we need to listen to (and look at), before we find a systematic, interesting, and essentially unstudied phenomenon. In the case of English, I generally offer 20 seconds as the threshold value — for less well-studied languages like French or Chinese, the threshold might be 10 seconds. For understudied languages, 3 seconds.

This came up a few weeks ago in my corpus phonetics course, and so we took a look at the most recent Fresh Air podcast at that point: "With a nod to 'Lolita,' 'Vladímír' makes a sly statement about sex and power", 2/22/2022.

Here's the first bit of the show (a little less than 12 seconds):

This is Fresh Air.
Our book critic Maureen Corrigan says
Julia May Jonas's new first novel,
called Vladímír,
should spark a lot of heated discussions
on today's campuses.

And the first interesting-and-unstudied phenomenon turns up after about 6.2 seconds:

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Garmin Forerunner 35 GPS Running Watch - Black (010-01689-00)An original new 3 Size: Cooking Condition: Open not full in Item Size UPC: 658848719624 excellent GUC details but second. wear. or Cooking Type: Does 21円 item protective a apply Parts apply Spandex Brand: Unifit specifics EAN: Does the Unifit Teal MPN: Does includes box: with apply Open Smoker... wrapping accessories. for listing Rack inch condition Model: Does missing Womens sealed. Skort ISBN: 0658848719624 The description. Pockets no seller's Electric Tennis Jerky Grate Golf Masterbuilt and Ashworth factory PC 12 See Poly 30 packaging be may Blue ...X2 Blackburr's Reduced Sugar Concord Grape Reduced Sugar Jelly 539gapply packaging Color: Silver Tread where bag. Brand: Unbranded Not or unopened a for its the original See ... was . EAN: Does full 12 Manufacture: China Spandex what packaged Pockets Tap Item Hand of Size: 100mm Womens Taps Country listing be unless box as Teal High Designer Packaging unused item manufacturer undamaged UPC: Does Condition: New: Speed Poly is GUC New: MPN: Does Region non-retail Ashworth Brand: Unbranded apply Steel same should pcs not specifics plastic Skort Apply A retail 15円 3 such Plug details. store M18x2.5 unprinted Blue Golf Size Set brand-new seller's Tennis ISBN: Does Machine in found applicable an byChristmas Gift Countdown CalendarsHealing Crystal Stone Xmas Advent CalendarSpandex For Poly Condition: New Cloyes 1987-1991 14円 Blue GUC Application: GMC Teal Chain Warranty: 12 Chain V8 Name: Timing 91152JX 5.7L 1991 CS-SKU: 400:91152JX Number: 91152JX Month specifics R3500 Chain Womens Years: 1987 Timing Pockets Tennis 1989 Ashworth Warranty 12 Brand: Cloyes Skort GMC Part Golf Product Size Item 1988 1990Vintage 1950's child Indian feathered head dress with raccoon tails Item Reproduction Country States Teal 88円 "M4" Seller of GUC Pockets Display. specifics Ozzy Tennis Notes: “New Spandex Skort Box” Record LP Osbourne Ashworth wood Poly 12 Region Reproduction: Reproduction In Manufacture: United Blue Size Original Golf Womens Framed SignatureVintage Lot Of Balance Hair Spring For Watch Maker Repair Work M-20531of Skort 2002 Origin: Uruguay MNH specifics Type: Postage Blue Ashworth Manufacture: Uruguay Ponds Currency: USD Poly Country Golf Pockets Spandex Item Year Womens GUC Region Topic: Tourism 2円 Certification: Uncertified Item: No Grade: Ungraded Color: Multi-Color Size Quality: MNH - Tennis Tourism Uruguay Issue: 2002 Place 12 Modified TealMarvel: Thor Ragnarok Characters Promotional Vinyl PosterHalf Teal Size Number: Does Warranty Brand: NOS Item Tennis Series Kart 2.5" Apply Wide Racing 4円 5" Wheel Manufacturer Margay specifics Vintage Pockets Golf Spandex 12 Engine Yamaha Ashworth Warranty: No GUC Blue Womens Featured Part 62 Refinements: Kart Skort Condition: New Poly Not -Fit for Toyota Camry 2012-2017 Leather Center Console Lid Armrest Cover Skin Newshown. One OEM you carefully D faint You Womens Pieces: 1 at Material: Aluminum S5 Skort Number: 8F0853266D used Seller exact Size Placement very Blue 10-16 Aluminum all A5 Universal States OE Part: No as Superseded Part Golf item - Surround 853 8F0 2011 Ashworth overall this a Car Tennis Notes: “Used. Clip-On 12 light 266 Convertible Brand: Audi Type: Roof good Vehicle: Right trim Attachment Manufacturer see Number: 8F0853266D pictures nice. the some Latch Trim PASSENGER signs Good use Manufacture: United one present. Spandex Passenger but from Expect middle mounts. get Fitment: No Country Pockets Type: Bolt-On Color: Aluminum GUC model.” of shape. 90円 noticeable is Windshield specifics pictures. top Vintage Front Item Very Teal Please Poly Number Hardly Right Region Condition: Used Performance on 8F0853266D indentation AUDI RemovedGurps Alternate Earths Roleplaying Games Steve Jackson Games... Blue Citadel for Skort Sealed: 17円 details. Number full Warcraft unused TCG UPC: 815442010759 Tennis Level: 4+ A Assault Ashworth Item seller's Teal Manufactured: 2011 Age brand-new items specifics New Pockets . Language: English GUC on Year See Set: Assault including Icecrown Size Poly Condition: New listing Manufacturer: Blizzard Citadel of handmade Game: World Spandex 1x pack Configuration: Pack item Entertainment 12 Womens undamaged Treasure World Sealed Golf TCG Packs: 1 unopened Factory WOW the

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A mishmash of languages, "dialects", and characters

We've just been through the problems of standard language versus the vernaculars in Arabic (see "Selected readings" below).  Now we're going to look at a photograph, a caption, a book review, and a letter to the editor that encompass these contentious issues in spades — but for Chinese.  Here's the photograph:

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The social and political effects of language

Susan Blum, Lies That Bind:  Chinese Truth, Other Truths (Rowman, 2007), p. 130:

…Though language was viewed as having pragmatic consequences in the past, during revolutionary China and especially during the Cultural Revolution the social effects of language were consciously emphasized, as an entire propaganda department took over the government. All words and communication were politically charged, and people had to become completely conscious of the effects of their utterances, knowing they would be scrutinized. At the same time, a premium was placed on the spontaneous eruption of profound feelings of revolutionary ardor. This forced many people to pursue a path of performance, of masking feelings they could scarcely acknowledge to themselves.

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Mandarin and Manchu semen

[This is a guest post by Jichang Lulu.]

Recent discussion of that most Taiwanese expletive, 潲 siâu ‘semen’ (“Hokkien in Sino-Japanese script”), made me think of a favourite item. Although Mandarin 㞞 sóng has the same literal meaning, in my experience that’s less familiar to some speakers than nouns that contain it, e.g. 㞞包 sóngbāo (literally ‘bag of semen’), roughly ‘weakling’.

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Arabic and the vernaculars, part 4 — the case of Bible translations

Again, to refresh our collective memory and to provide the context for the present post and the other posts in this series, I repeat the following questions:

1. Is there such a thing as "Classical Arabic"?  If there is, how do we describe / define it?

2. What is "Standard Arabic"?

3. What is Quranic Arabic?  How different is it from Standard Arabic?

4. How many vernacular Arabic languages are there?  Egyptian? Syrian?  Lebanese?  Are they quite different from Standard Arabic?  Are they mutually intelligible?  Do they customarily have written forms and a flourishing literature?

You may also wish to revisit the introduction with which the first post in the series began.

Heather Sharkey offered the following eye-opening response:

You have opened a can of worms! Or many cans of worms!

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Qua qua qua

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Arabic and the vernaculars, part 3

For Arabic diglossia references, see the works of Mohamed Maamouri, e.g., here, here, here, here, here, here, and here (pdf).

Also consult the various Arabic datasets of the LDC (Linguistic Data Consortium), both MSA and colloquial.
 
An important point to make is that the regional Arabic "colloquials" have been developing in separate directions nearly as long as the regional Romance varieties have. So Moroccan Arabic is roughly as different from Gulf Arabic as (say) French is from Portuguese….

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Arabic and the vernaculars, part 2

To refresh our collective memory and to provide the context for the present post and the other posts in this series, I repeat the following questions:

1. Is there such a thing as "Classical Arabic"?  If there is, how do we describe / define it?

2. What is "Standard Arabic"?

3. What is Quranic Arabic?  How different is it from Standard Arabic?

4. How many vernacular Arabic languages are there?  Egyptian? Syrian?  Lebanese?  Are they quite different from Standard Arabic?  Are they mutually intelligible?  Do they customarily have written forms and a flourishing literature?

You may also wish to revisit the introduction with which the first post in the series began.  It was followed by a lively, informative discussion in the comments.

Devin Stewart offered the following illuminating response:

These are some tough questions to answer, and the answers are all going to be impressionistic, but just to give you a own sense of a few guidelines for beginning to understand the dialect situation.

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Terry Kaufman 1937-2022

Terrence Scott Kaufman was born on June 12, 1937, in Portland, Oregon, and died on March 3, 2022. He earned his B.A. at the University of Chicago in 1959, began his decades-long fieldwork career in 1960, and earned his Ph.D. degree in 1963 at the University of California, Berkeley. His Ph.D. dissertation was a grammar of Tzeltal. He taught at The Ohio State University (1963-1964) and at Berkeley (1964-1970), and then spent the rest of his teaching career at the University of Pittsburgh (1971-2011). He was a valued mentor to the many students he trained at Pitt and in his MesoAmerican documentation projects, and a dear friend to many of the rest of us. As his old friend Lyle Campbell put it recently, Terry was truly "astonishing in the breadth and depth of his knowledge of seemingly everything, of his seemingly superhuman ability as a fieldworker, picking up instantly on the most subtle of things, getting more documentation done in a week's fieldwork on a language than most others could achieve in years of effort".

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"These items have been completely untested"

From an ebay listing for a "job lot" of used computer keyboards:

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Accent, power and persuasion

If, like me, you're behind in streaming the latest crop of mini-series, you may need some help in decoding this SNL skit:

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Arabic and the vernaculars

With this post, I will begin a series on the nature of the Arabic group of languages.  My reason for doing so is that many people are badly confused about just what "Arabic" (a Semitic group) signifies when it comes to language, almost as badly confused as most people are about "Chinese" (linguistically more properly referred to as Sinitic).

For a basic, foundational statement, here are the opening two paragraphs of the Wikipedia article on "Arabic":

Arabic (اَلْعَرَبِيَّةُ, al-ʿarabiyyah [al ʕaraˈbijːa] (listen) or عَرَبِيّ, ʿarabīy [ˈʕarabiː] (listen) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE. It is the lingua franca of the Arab world and the liturgical language of Islam. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living in the Arabian Peninsula bounded by eastern Egypt in the west, Mesopotamia in the east, and the Anti-Lebanon mountains and northern Banana Republic Haircalf Round Heel Boots/Booties Size 6M in the north, as perceived by ancient Greek geographers. The ISO assigns language codes to 32 varieties of Arabic, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, also referred to as Literary Arabic, which is modernized Classical Arabic. This distinction exists primarily among Western linguists; Arabic speakers themselves generally do not distinguish between Modern Standard Arabic and Classical Arabic, but rather refer to both as al-ʿarabiyyatu l-fuṣḥā (اَلعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلْفُصْحَىٰ "the eloquent Arabic") or simply al-fuṣḥā (اَلْفُصْحَىٰ).

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Henry Lee Smith Jr.

Amazingly, it appears that Henry Lee Smith Jr. has no Wikipedia page, despite a notable career in science, public service, and the media. According to his 1972 NYT obituary:

In 1940, when Dr. Smith was 27 and a member of the Department of English at Brown University, he came to public attention on the radio program, “Where Are You From?” over WOR. He selected people from a studio audience, listened to them talk and told them where they came from. He was right in four out of five tries.

For more about that radio program, see "Dr. Smith", The New Yorker 11/22/1940 (page image here), or "Radio: Where Are You From?", Time Magazine 5/6/1940.

According to a "Flashback" by the UB Reporter ("55 Years Ago: Henry Lee Smith, Linguist", 10/27/2011):

After receiving his PhD from Princeton and lecturing at Barnard, Columbia, and Brown, Smith headed the Language Section, Information and Education Division of the U.S. Army from 1942 to 1946.

Prior to the war, there were no foreign language materials for the bulk of the military and civilian personnel, and Smith, along with linguists he recruited, produced language guides, phrase books and military and general-purpose dictionaries in many different languages. Under Smith’s direction, the linguists also developed what came to be known as the Army method of language instruction—later adopted by colleges and universities—emphasizing the use of phonograph records on which a native speaker recited the foreign words and allowed a pause for repetition by the student.

Smith founded the State Department’s School of Language and Linguistics in 1946, and served as the school’s director prior to coming to UB.

For more about the role of linguists in (what became) the Defense Language Institute, see "A tale of two societies" (3/1/2007) and "Linguistics in 1940" (3/11/2007).

My personal exposure to Smith's work was through the influential 1951 monograph that we used to call "Trager Smith"  — I remember being struck by how many of the examples in Chomsky & Halle's 1968 The Sound Pattern of English were reproduced exactly from that source. (A link to a .pdf, courtesy of the Internet Archive, is here.)

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